ROME – “It will not be a festival on the Green pass or on provax or novax, but an attempt to think about the principles that can be used to give the right terms of that debate“. The director of the Philosophy Festival, Daniele Francesconi, thus responds to the Dire on this year’s edition which, from Friday 17th to Sunday 19th will animate Modena, Carpi and Sassuolo with artistic lessons and events dedicated to the concept of ‘freedom’. Never like this year the kermesse of thought is anchored to the news and a key word claimed by everyone on issues related to the health emergency.
“The Festival will try to help ask the right questions, to realize what is at stake. We realized it already last year – explains the director – that it was a decisive issue after the months of lockdown, that a redefinition of freedom and we expected it to remain current. It is more urgent by the hour. The point of view of philosophy looks to the contemporary, but always in a gyroscopic perspective: starting from a depth, understanding exactly the nature of the issues. The public debate – commented by slogans, in a partisan way, according to supporters and mixing plans ”.
The public debate on the issues brought into play by the pandemic has led philosophers, perhaps with greater incisiveness than in the past, to take a voice on TV. When asked if the critical positions on the Green pass of the well-known philosopher Massimo Cacciari, member of the Scientific Committee of the Festival, embarrass the organizers, the director Francesconi answers sharply: “Not at all. Democracy predicts difference; it is, as Kant said, the public use of reason. The difference of opinion is a value“.
So the Festival this year will serve to set the terms of an often poorly conducted debate: “Clarify and not seek consensus. We will try to say – explains Francesconi – that there is a need to understand what common freedom is, the intersubjective one, within the framework of the Institutions which in any case needs the adhesion of individuals to be implemented. Therefore individual and collective freedom, our commitment to freedom, public freedom as a connection with that of individuals, the relationship between freedom and responsibility, care for others, the great risk of a world of servants “.
Philosophy helps, once again, to remove illusions: “It is only a fiction that he is free only for himself, not even the free rider is. The reality, even before the institutional rules, is in friction with this reading ”.
Francesconi recalls some points of the three-day program: the interventions aimed at the relationship “institutions and freedom”, and the look at the great paradigms “Athens and Sparta in the lesson of Eva Cantarella or Adriano Prosperi on free or servant will”.
As a scholar, Francesconi has no doubts: “For tired democracies, it is necessary to return to an author that is hardly read: in Montesquieu, his work is a great encyclopedia of the doctrines of freedom. For example, the idea of the recognition of difference in the philosophical novel ‘The Persian Letters’ and then ‘The spirit of the laws’ where it presents the so-called negative freedoms within the Institutions “: a necessity, according to the historical father of liberalism, vital for them subjective freedoms. The director of the Festival is also convinced that reading these works would be of great use to current political systems.