Early treatment to minimize symptoms of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is more frequent in women, according to figures in the United States, its incidence is 3.5 per thousand women annually and 0.8 per 1000 men per year.

The most common serological finding presented in patients is the presence of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase. Photo: Shutterstock.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is defined by the gradual failure of thyroid function due to autoimmune destruction and apoptosis of cells in the thyroid gland. thyroid. In this thyroiditis there is a destruction of follicular cells, mediated by diffuse lymphocytic infiltration, in which B cells and T cells predominate.

Said infiltration can generate changes in the disorder, such as goiter or enlargement of the gland of thyroid and autoimmune atrophic thyroiditis. In an article written for the Medicine and Public Health Magazine (MSP) written by the endocrinologist Mónica Vega Vázquez, it is explained that:

“The most common serological finding presented in all these patients is the presence of antibodies against peroxidase of thyroid (TPO) and thyroglobulin (Tg) antibodies. Thyroglobulin is synthesized by follicular cells of the thyroid, are secreted into the lumen of the follicle and are then cleaved by peptidases, producing thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). For its part, TPO is a key enzyme in hormonogenesis; together they play a fundamental role in the production of hormones thyroid“.

Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is more frequent in women, according to figures in the United States, its incidence is 3.5 per thousand women annually and 0.8 per 1000 men per year. In the course of this disorder there is a gradual loss of the function of the preserved gland, resulting in a frank hypothyroidism that is identified by an increase in the levels of the stimulating hormone of thyroid (TSH) and decrease in thyroxine (T4) hormone levels.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Fatigue

  • Tiredness

  • cold intolerance

  • cognitive dysfunction

  • Constipation

  • dry skin

  • Swelling

  • bradycardia

  • Delayed relaxation of reflexes

  • periorbital edema

  • Hoarseness

  • Myalgias and arthralgias

  • Weight gain

  • Alteration of the menstrual period

  • diastolic hypertension

  • Galactorrhea


The treatment is given through the intake of synthetic levothyroxine that fulfills the function of replacing the thyroid hormone that normalizes TSH levels in a range of 0.4 to 4 mU/L, improves the clinical symptoms presented by the patient and decreases the size of the goiter.

Graves disease or diffuse toxic goiter

This is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism and usually presents as a syndrome that includes goiter, or an enlarged thyroid gland. thyroid, eye disease or orbitopathy. Occasionally, dermopathy or localized pretibial myxedema. The major autoantigen in this disorder is the receptor for cell-stimulating hormone. thyroid (TSHR) which is the one that regulates the growth of the gland, the production and the secretion of its hormone.

This disease is common in women between 30 and 50 years of age.

Signs and symptoms:

  • heat intolerance

  • Excessive sweating and warm skin

  • palpitations and tachycardia
  • Increased bowel frequency

  • Alteration of the menstrual period

  • Shaking

  • Muscular weakness

  • Fatigue

  • hyperreflexia

  • Hyperactivity and irritability

  • Weight loss with increased appetite

  • Insomnia

  • Some patients may present with ocular symptoms such as Graves’ ophthalmopathy.


Treatment for hyperthyroidism associated with Graves’ disease includes antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, or surgery thyroidthese options have been found to be effective, adverse effects can be significant


For the endocrinologist Mónica Vega Vázquez, “autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are complex and can result in clinical conditions that definitely affect the quality of life of the patients who present them. However, if risk factors and signs are recognized and symptoms of these conditions, treatment can be offered early in the course of the disease to minimize your symptoms by replacing or restoring your thyroid function.”

Elton Gardner

Elton Gardner is a seasoned writer and editor for He is a graduate of a prestigious journalism school and has contributed to numerous newspapers and magazines. Elton is an expert in various fields, including sports, entertainment, and technology. He is widely respected for his insights and engaging writing style. As an editor, Elton oversees a team of writers and ensures the website stays current with the latest trends and breaking news. His writing is characterized by its depth, clarity, and accessibility. Elton's spare time is spent with his family, playing sports, reading, and traveling to explore new cultures. With his talent, experience, and dedication, Elton Gardner is a prominent figure in online media and will continue to make waves in the years to come.

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