Upcoming vaccines against respiratory viruses are under investigation

Viruses that cause respiratory infections such as COVID-19, flu, bronchiolitis or pneumonia are behind More than 5 million deaths every year in the world, According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO). Vaccines are one of the most important prevention tools to address this public health problem. Some drugs that have to deal with the constant replication of these viral pathogens require new approaches, as described in a study published in ‘Cell Host Microbe’.

A development that presents various challenges. “We must better understand why multiple sequential mucosal infections with the same circulating respiratory virus, distributed across decades of life, occur Fails to stimulate natural protective immunity, “Particularly with viruses that lack significant antigenic drift, these being respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and parainfluenzavirus,” the authors of the study report.

innovation The next generations of sera form the basis for the creation of new vaccines “that generate immune protection against viruses that survive in human populations due to their ability to remain well beyond the total protective reach of human innate and adaptive immunity”, as indicated. Has been given. Examination

“Diseases caused by pneumococcus, influenza, pertussis, and herpes zoster (HZ) account for approximately 94% of the burden of vaccine-preventable diseases in adults”

The creation of new preventive tools must face the current situation: with asymptomatic patients. Comprehensive aging rate. For these, as highlighted Sophia Bauer Izquierdo, Member of the INCLIVA Primary Care Research Group, javier diez-domingo, Head and experts in the vaccine research area at FISABIO laura vallejo A letter to the editor published in the magazine ‘Primary Care’ states that vaccination is the most effective way to maintain your quality of life and deal with aging immunity. Not in vain, the document states, “diseases caused by pneumococcus, influenza, pertussis and herpes zoster (HZ) account for approximately 94% of the burden caused by vaccine-preventable diseases in adults.”

The impact of these maladies on quality of life, as well as the economic costs of health care and especially hospital care, are very high and the only way to avoid them is vaccination. “there is Growing number of vaccines in development This will improve the health of the elderly population. ‘Some have recently been included in the vaccine schedule (such as HZ), and it is expected that others will do so soon given the impact on their populations (such as respiratory syncytial virus).’ Certainly, research currently being conducted is looking for a new generation of more effective vaccination tools.

Principles to be adopted in future vaccines

As reported in the study published in ‘Cell Host Microbe’, “As of 2022, after more than 60 years of experience with influenza vaccines, little improvement in infection prevention by vaccines has been observed.” It is necessary to update the formulations of these preventive tools every year to adapt them to the flu viruses and SARS-CoV-2 that appear every season.

Although there are still no vaccines with widespread protective results, there are a large number of experimental vaccines in preclinical and early clinical development that must solve the major challenge that exists: creating vaccines complete long-term protective immunity, A protection that does not itself give rise to natural infection.

In this sense, experts remember that it is possible that the human immune system has evolvedTo tolerate respiratory virus infection during very short intervals of viral replication. of the mucous membrane and it is necessary Learn more about security which develops against these viruses and Build consensus on precise levels of security (complete prevention of infection, limitation of viral replication, prevention of disease or only severe morbidity, the latter such as the current action of vaccines against SARS-COV-2, which causes COVID-19 and flu).

“Optimized formulations, higher vaccine doses, greater frequency of vaccine administration and overcoming the challenges of immune tolerance are required”

The document also emphasizes the form of administration, the most recommended is the nasal route, but keeping in mind, they highlight that “Optimized formulation, higher vaccine dose, higher frequency of administration “Overcoming the Challenges of Vaccine and Immune Tolerance.” Additionally, the authors note, it is important that next-generation vaccines take into account public health considerations such as vaccination schedules, the role of boosters, frequency of vaccination and duration/completeness of protection, side effects, and public acceptance.

Experts are optimistic about the new development of vaccines that will eventually provide answers for patients. However, in addition to more efficient vaccines, experts remember the need for Increase awareness in administration. As Bauer, Díaz-Domingo and Vallejo point out in the above letter to the editor, vaccine coverage for adults over 65 remains a far cry from children. Given the reluctance, he recalls that the safety of these drugs “is always one of the priorities of regulatory authorities, who will approve their use only after great benefit/risk relationships have been demonstrated.”

Furthermore, he points out, not administering vaccines recommended and financed by the health system means “leaving patients vulnerable, which can be questioned from an ethical perspective.” That is why he recalls that “it is necessary to promote vaccination as an efficient preventive measure against potentially serious infectious diseases and especially in older people who are more vulnerable to these diseases.”

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