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Which countries are most dependent on gas exported by Russia?

(CNN Spanish) — Russia continues to cut gas supplies to Europe, sparking fears in both Brussels and the United States of possible winter shortages, turning the gaze once again to Russian exports in the context of its invasion of Ukraine.

This week Gazprom, the Russian state-owned gas company, announced that it would halve the flow of the Nord Stream 1 gas pipeline to Germany, to 20% of its capacity, in retaliation for the sanctions imposed by the West for the invasion, according to a American official.

But since the end of March, Russia has been warning “unfriendly” foreign nations that they would have to pay for gas in rubles from April 1, or risk having the service suspended. And so it happened. A month later, Gazprom stopped gas supplies to Poland and Bulgaria in response to both countries refusing to pay in rubles.

The 5 main buyers of Russian oil 0:57

Shortly after the war began, US President Joe Biden announced a ban on US imports of oil, natural gas, and coal from Russia.

The measure taken by the United States was then seconded by the United Kingdom, which will put the measure into effect by the end of 2022. Now the European Union (EU), much more dependent on Russian hydrocarbons, has asked member countries to save gas and store it for the winter, and on Tuesday energy ministers agreed in principle to reduce gas use by 15 % from August to March.

Which, then, are the countries that are most dependent on natural gas, oil and coal produced by Russia?

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How much gas does the EU import from Russia?

The European Union depends on Russia for about 40% of its natural gas. In addition, a significant part of the EU’s oil imports in 2021 came from Russia: 27% of the 27-country bloc’s oil imports. Russia also supplies 46% of the EU’s coal imports. Add that trade together, and it’s worth tens of billions of dollars a year to Russia, presumably helping to finance President Vladimir Putin’s war effort.

Europe is also the destination for 72% of Russia’s gas exports. Germany (16%), Italy (12%) and France (8%) lead consumption, followed by Turkey (6%), the Netherlands (5%), Austria (5%), Poland (4%), the United Kingdom (4%) and Hungary (4%).

Asia and Oceania receive 11% of exports, and China (5%) and Japan (4%) stand out there.

While the rest of Europe and Eurasia account for 17% of Russian gas exports, with Belarus (8%) and Kazakhstan (5%) standing out.

Major oil producers in the world

As of 2020, Russia was the world’s third largest producer of crude oil after the United States and Saudi Arabia. It then produced an annual average of 9.9 million barrels per day, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). By 2021, it became second, producing 9.7 million barrels. , as seen in the following graph.

How much oil does the United States import from Russia?

About 8% of US hydrocarbon imports came from Russia in 2021, of which only about 3% was crude oil. That year, the US bought about 245.2 million barrels of crude oil and oil products from him, its highest level since 1995, when these operations began to be recorded.

The Department of Energy reported that Russian oil imports fell to zero in the last two weeks of February as US companies cut ties with Russia, effectively implementing their own ban.

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How much coal does Russia export and where does it go?

In 2019, Russia produced 482 million tons of coal and is the sixth largest producer in the world, behind China, India, the United States and Indonesia, according to the EIA. Its reserves, estimated at 179,000 million tons, are the second largest on the planet, after the United States.

Russia mainly exports this fuel to Asia and Oceania (54% of the total). Among the main buyers are China (17%), South Korea (12%) and Japan (10%).

Europe receives 31% of Russian coal exports, with Turkey (7%), Germany (7%), the Netherlands (5%) and Ukraine (5%) standing out among the buyers, now at war with Russia.

With reporting from CNN’s Mark Thompson, Kaitlan Collins, Jeremy Diamond, Kevin Liptak, Phil Mattingly, MJ Lee and Kate Sullivan

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