“My son, find a kingdom like yours, for there is no room left in Macedonia.” With these words, Macedonian King Philip II addressed his son Alexander when he was barely 17 years old. Until the day of his death, June 13 (some sources say 10) 323 BC, Legacy of Alexander the Great, The ruler who defeated the Persians and extended his empire to India, It would inspire the great generals of history like Julius Caesar or Napoleon Bonaparte.
Son of Philip II of Macedonia and Princess Olympias, a member of the royal family of Epirus, Alexander III of Macedonia, known as Alexander the Great, was born in August 356 BC Having been chosen by his father as the future heir, he was educated as such from birth His intellectual training was entrusted to Aristotle. The philosopher instilled in the young man a great appreciation for Greek culture and ancient epics, specially for iliad by Homer, which became his bedside book. His military training was done by Clito, A soldier who was murdered by Alexander himself when, years later, at a banquet in Samarkand, he chided him for comparing himself to the gods and for his growing “orientation”.
conquest of persia
During the first years of his reign, Alexander increased pressure on the Greek states subject to Macedonia, who had taken advantage of Philip’s death to rebel. Once control of Hellas was gained, and continuing the expansionist policies that his father had already begun, In the year 334 BC, Alexander sent his army of barely 40,000 men against the powerful Persian Empire. Despite the numerical superiority of King Darius III’s army, Alexander defeated him at the battles of Granicus and Issos (333 BC), Gaugamela (331 BC) and the Battle of the Persian Gate (330 BC).
After gaining control of Hellas, the young Alexander launched his army of barely 40,000 men against the powerful Persian Empire.
In late 334 BC, Alexander decided to spend the winter at Gordion, Ancient capital of Phrygia (Asia Minor). There was a famous royal chariot, which was tied with a knot which was very difficult to untie. According to Gordian’s oracle, “Whoever knew how to undo this would conquer Asia.” Some sources indicate that Alexander patiently untied the knot, and others claim that he cut it with his sword. That same night a lightning storm occurred, which, according to Alexander, symbolized that Zeus had approved his plans for conquest.
Alexander was hailed as a hero as he passed through Egypt After his victory against the Persians. During his stay in the country of the Nile, he began building many temples and showed his reverence for the local deities. In Memphis, before the enthusiasm of the people, who saw him as a liberator, the Macedonian emperor was named Pharaoh of Egypt. during their stay In the oasis of Siwa, seat of the famous oracle of the god Amun, Alexander consulted the divinity to confirm his divine origins. and confirmed that he was the son of Zeus, who was identified in that remote region with the Egyptian god Amun.
In the year 331 BC, While the defeated Darius III fled -He was later assassinated by Besos, a Persian nobleman-, Alexander completed the conquest of Persia. He triumphantly entered Babylon, Persepolis and Susa, where he married Princess Barsin-Stateira, daughter of Darius III.
Alexander the Great’s India campaign
Lord of Central Asia and present-day Afghanistan, Alexander set out to conquer India, And although it occupied the western part of the subcontinent, Due to the rebellion of his soldiers he had to abandon his advance towards the east, Tired of such a long series of conquests and battles. After his campaign in Bactria in 327 BC, he married Roxana, Daughter of Oxyartes, a Bactrian nobleman who had risen against him.
Tired of the long series of conquests and wars, Alexander had to continue his conquest of India due to the rebellion of his soldiers.
After his campaign in India, Alexander was fully aware of the sophistication the Persian Empire had achieved. Mesmerized by this, The conqueror also adopted the customs and ways of dressing of the Persians, much to the displeasure of his Macedonian officers. They also rebelled, which Alexander put down by killing the ringleaders.
The tragic end of Alexander the Great
In this context of distrust, the person closest to Alejandro – with whom he also appears to have an emotional relationship – Hephaestion fell ill during some games held at court. He died a week later And, according to history, Alexander went mad from the pain, shaved his head and canceled all celebrations. Alexander left for Babylon with his friend’s body, He organized a grand funeral in his memory and built a large mausoleum in his honour.
When his beloved Hephaestion died, Alexander went mad with grief and organized a lavish funeral in his honor.
On a hot day in June, Alexander the Great died in his palace in Babylon. The debate continues even today regarding the reasons for his death. There are people who point to fever and there are people who say that he was poisoned. be that as it may, His untimely death at the age of 33 saved the vast empire he had built from extinction. Succession conflicts, in which their wives and children were murdered, disintegrated His legacy, distributed among his generals, gave rise to the Hellenistic states.