Biotechnology and DNA for healthcare and agriculture. AseBIo

Biotechnology and DNA: a combination that will usher in an era of personalization in healthcare and agriculture.  Spanish Association of Bioenterprises (AseBio)Biotechnology and DNA: a combination that will usher in an era of personalization in healthcare and agriculture.  Spanish Association of Bioenterprises (AseBio)

Spanish Association of Bioenterprises (AseBio)

On April 25, 1953, American biologist James Watson and British theoretical physicist Francis Crick published in the journal Nature article in which they described their model of the structure of the double helix of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). This provided fundamental understanding of how genetic information is stored and transmitted in living organisms, leading them to claim that they had discovered the “secret of life.”

Watson and Crick were awarded the prize in 1962 Nobel Prize in Medicine (along with physical Maurice Wilkins) for this discovery. A discovery that would not have been possible without the British crystallographer’s pioneering X-ray diffraction research. Rosalind Frankin who in 1951 produced the key image (Photograph 51) that showed the aforementioned helical structure of DNA for the first time.

Opening DNA double helix structure opened up new perspectives in areas such as genetics, molecular biology wave medicinelaying the foundations for development modern biotechnology.

Biotechnological advances based on DNA have changed many fields such as e.g. health or Wednesdayas shown by use New methods for editing crop genomes (NTG), resulting in crops becoming more resistant to diseases, pests and adverse weather conditions.

next generation DNA sequencing has a great influence on personalized medicine, genomic research wave detection of genetic diseases.

Understanding DNA allows the development of personalized treatments based on a patient’s genetic profile, such as: gene therapy: By modifying the DNA in a patient’s cells, faulty genes can be corrected or compensated for, opening up new possibilities for treating serious genetic disorders.

pharmacogenomics combines pharmacology and genomics to develop safe and effective drugs tailored to a person’s genetic makeup. This not only increases the effectiveness of drugs, but also reduces the risk of adverse reactions, optimizing pharmacological treatment.

These are just a few examples of how DNA has revolutionized the fundamentals of biotechnology and opened up promising horizons for us. On the occasion of the celebration World DNA Day We analyze how some of AseBio’s partners are working on the latest DNA-based biotech innovations.

CRISPR technology and the revolution in biomedicine

CRISPR (Clustered Regular Short Palindromic Repeats) is a revolutionary technology in molecular biology allowing for precise and efficient gene editing.

System CRISPR/Cas9 It uses an enzyme called “Cas9” along with a guide RNA to target specific DNA sequences in the genome. Once the enzyme binds to this sequence, it can cut the DNA at that location. This allows for both insertion and deletion of genes.providing a powerful tool for biological research and potential for treating genetic diseases or grow cropsamong other applications.

Genome editing can solve real problems for farmers and the planet, such as reducing the need for crop protection products and the use of energy, land and water, and creating crops that are more resistant to disease and the effects of climate change..

V Agriculturethis gene editing process is usually seeks to improve a beneficial feature of the body or eliminate an undesirable feature.. To achieve this goal, the latest advances in plant breeding techniques are used to improve seeds for greater efficiency and specificity than ever before.

“Having lived just over 10 years and received the Nobel Prize in 2020, CRISPR technology has revolutionized biomedicine: made it possible to democratize the use of genome editors, significantly accelerating their development, and opened the way to therapies for a wide range of diseases. genetic and oncological diseases, some of them have already been approved for therapeutic use in patients. The challenge now is to integrate genetic editing tools with the ability to write new therapeutic messages into the patient’s genome,” they explain from

Integra Therapeuticsa biotechnology company that develops gene editing tools to optimize the effectiveness and safety of cutting-edge treatments.

In this sense, the platform stands out. Fikat (Find and Cut-and-Transfer), which addresses current technical limitations in terms of safety, efficiency and accuracy in development advanced treatment methods. “It combines the precision of CRISPR-Cas9 molecular scissors, capable of cutting DNA from patient cells where it is needed, with precision that no engineering tool can match, and the efficiency of transferring modified transposases, which are proteins that “ nature designed them to perform the function of copying and pasting the entire therapeutic message into the DNA.”

“Having made this combination, we managed to maintain the efficiency of gene writingbut very precisely at one position in the genome, which we can control and change depending on the solution we want to find for each disease,” they explain from Integra Therapeutics.

FiCAT is in pre-clinical regulatory phase. In 2023, very promising ex vivo and in vivo data were presented at the Global Synthetic Biology Conference in the USA and Advanced Therapies Europe. “We have a prototype platform that works very well in the lab, and we have implemented it to be able to create advanced therapeutic products, both gene and cell therapies. Clinical trials are predicted to begin in 2026.

Genomic medicine lays the foundation for present and future healthcare

“This is undoubtedly a fundamental thing today and necessary tomorrow. genomic medicine “Not only does it set the standard today, it is becoming a central pillar of the future of health care,” he says. Guillermo Perez Solerofounder and CEO of the company ANDTRO Genetics is a Spanish biotech startup whose goal is to facilitate the understanding of genetic data and serve as a tool between the clinical and laboratory parts.

“Opportunity personalize medical treatment based on each person’s genetic makeup This is a revolution that changes the way we approach health. This personalized approach is evident in the way we treat complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Established institutions such as the American Heart Association (AHA) already recognize and support the integration of polygenic risk score (PRS)-based algorithms for clarify diagnoses and optimize clinical treatment. These advances are not just incremental, but represent a quantum leap in an era where medicine is as unique as each patient’s DNA,” he adds.

ADNTRO has developed tool for medical professionals which can easily analyze the results for an individual regarding the diseases of interest. This tool, designed for healthcare professionals, makes it easier to interpret patients’ genetic data. best guide to clinical diagnosis and as additional information for the doctor. These include interpretation algorithms that can help healthcare providers better understand the impact of certain genetic variants on the health of their patients, and are available for both genotyping (arrays) and the whole genome, in accordance with ACMG guidelines.

The photograph we see today shows how more and more countries are developing strategies Integrating genetic testing into national health systems. An example of this is Spain and the recent announcement by the Ministry of Health of a new Unified catalog of genetic and genomic tests National health system.

The catalogue, which currently contains 672 tests, will continue to be gradually expanded, given its flexible nature, with a commitment guarantee more uniform and fair access for these tests for all those patients who need it. “The catalog contains analysis of prognostic and predictive biomarkersnecessary for precision medicine, especially in the field cancer, where genetic and genomic testing plays a critical role in diagnosis, prognosis and treatment selection. This approach not only increases the accuracy of diagnosis, but also the effectiveness of therapy and, as a result, the quality of life of patients,” ADNTRO notes as positive aspects.

The company highlights other steps such as “Genetic analysis map” which are carried out in Spain within the framework of the National Health System. “These developments indicate Spain’s significant commitment to integrating genetics into healthcare, indicating improved equitable access to these important tests, regardless of the geographic location of patients within the country.”

Ultimately, DNA-based biotechnology applications They are numerous and open new horizons in the field of healthcare, as is the case with genomic medicine, which is important for promoting a more personalized, preventive and effective approach to healthcare. The discovery of the DNA double helix structure has since contributed to a greater understanding of the biology underlying disease, with tools such as biotechnologyimprove diagnosis and treatment.

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