Why do metals conduct electricity well?

Have you ever heard of the concept electronic sea? It seems like a term straight out of poetry, but it’s actually scientifically accurate. This is a concept that relates to the microscopic depths of matter, where studying the movement of electrons can help us understand the macroscopic world that surrounds us, for example, what is electrical conductivity actually? In fact, understanding the existence of this electron sea is critical to figuring out why elements like metals have higher electrical conductivity values ​​than others like wood.


To understand the concept of the electron sea, it is absolutely necessary to delve into the structure of electrons. atoms. They have a core filled with protons and neutrons and an outer shell in which electrons spin randomly. Now, looking at this from a quantum point of view, this definition changes somewhat, since it is observed that in reality the electrons orbit in different layers And jumping between energy levels which are located at different distances from the core. Each of the layers is represented by so-called core numbers, so as this core number increases, so will electron energy what moves in it, as well as its distance from the core.

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Thus it is known by the name electronic configuration to the distribution followed by electrons in an atom between different energy levels. Each element will have a different distribution, which will be responsible for all its properties, including the conductivity they possess, thermal excitation or energy absorption capacity.

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